Particle swarm optimization for small horizontal axis wind turbine

  • Wagner B. Lenz
  • Angelo M. Tusset
  • Mauricio A. Ribeiro
  • Adriano Kossoski
  • Jos'e M. Balthazar


The great demand for energy consumption in large urban centers allows the development of alternative forms of energy production. Wind energy is a promising alternative to this growing demand. Higher demand for electrical vehicles and strict standers for fossil fuel combine with the intelligent grid, enabling small wind turbines as a solution. Small wind turbines are used in small farms and homes to become energy neutral. In other words, the same amount of energy consumed is produced by wind or solar. However, small wind turbines are only economically attractive when implementation and maintenance costs are low.