Three-dimensional analysis of MHD Casson-Carreau nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching surface embedded in a porous medium under the influences of thermal radiation and temperature-dependent internal heat generation
In this study, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics Casson-Carreau nanofluid flow and heat transfer under the combined effects of thermal radiation, internal heat generation, dissipation over a stretching surface are investigated. The developed system of nonlinear partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer equations is reduced to a set of nonlinear third and second-order ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. The resulting equations are solved numerically using the finite element method. The results of the present numerical analysis are verified with the existing published works and there are very good agreements in the results. The impacts of various pertinent parameters on the flow, heat, and mass transfer characteristics of the Casson-Carreau nanofluids are analyzed and discussed. The magnetic field, porous and Casson parameters reduce the fluid velocity which in turn causes the enhancement of the temperature field. When the value of the Prandtl number is increased, the thermal boundary layer thickness is reduced. However, an increase in the value of the buoyancy ratio produces a significant increase in the thickness of the thermal boundary layer. Also, when the Lewis number and Brownian motion parameter are augmented, there is an increase in the thickness of the boundary layer concentration. The Solutal boundary layer thickness is depreciated with an increase in the value of the Brownian motion parameter. The Nusselt number decreases but the Sherwood number increases with an increase in the chemical reaction parameter. It is hoped that this work will greatly assist and enhance the understanding of the thermo-fluidic behavior of the flow of the Casson-Carreau nanofluids under the combined effects of thermal radiation, internal heat generation, and dissipation over a stretching surface.